Personal laws are statutory and customary laws applicable to particular religious or cultural groups within a national jurisdiction. They govern family relations in such matters as marriage and divorce, maintenance and succession. Personal laws remain prevalent in Asia and especially in South Asia and South-East Asia, including in India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore and the Philippines. Almost invariably, personal laws entrench inequalities with regard to women in two respects. Firstly, they sanction unequal rights of men and women within a given cultural or religious group. For example, some personal laws permit women to divorce their husbands on narrower grounds than those on which men are permitted to divorce their wives. Secondly, the application of personal laws results in unequal rights amongst women themselves, contingent on their religion or ethnicity. Hence, in a given jurisdiction, Muslim women may be entitled to smaller maintenance payments than Christian or Hindu women, or vice versa.
A transgender student's expression of her gender identity, including through the use of gender consistent bathrooms, is First Amendment protected speech,
Voting rights advocates should explore section 11(b) of the Voting Rights Act as a vehicle to combat voter intimidation.
Mandatory arbitration for guestworkers, a uniquely vulnerable group, will result in class inequality and worse conditions for all workers.
An evidentiary privilege to protect workers' confidential communications from disclosure in federal and state court proceedings would support unions.